Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts

Valgma, I (2000). Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts. Oil Shale, 17(2), 201 - 212.: ""

Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospects and Policy Issues - James T. Bartis, Tom LaTourrette, Lloyd Dixon, D. J. Peterson, Gary Cecchine - Google Books

Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospects and Policy Issues - James T. Bartis, Tom LaTourrette, Lloyd Dixon, D. J. Peterson, Gary Cecchine - Google Books: ""

In situ recovery of oil from oil shale - Google Patents

Patent US4444258 - In situ recovery of oil from oil shale - Google Patents:

Mining in Estonia: Photos

Mining in Estonia: Photos

VKG Kaevandused

VKG Kaevandused OÜ:

Ojamaa mine, which belongs to VKG Kaevandus OÜ, is the first new mine to be built in the Republic of Estonia since the country regained its independence. Ojamaa mine is starting its operation in 2012 and should reach its maximum capacity by the end of this year extracting up to 2,5 mln tons oil shale per year.

Kunda Nordic - HeidelbergCement in Estonia

About us - Kunda Nordic - HeidelbergCement in Estonia:

About us

AS Kunda Nordic Tsement was established in 1992 and belongs now to HeidelbergCement Group. From 1993 to 2000, cement production in Kunda underwent thorough renovation. One of the most essential goals was to eliminate dust pollution from clinker kilns and cement mills. To achieve this objective, the filters to clean waste emissions to air were installed.

Another important part of the company's restoration was building of a deep-water port in Kunda on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. In 1999, the company completed the mounting of a local electricity and heat co-generation plant operating on natural gas.

Cement producing in Kunda has long traditions. Production was started as early as 1870 (see also the History subfolder).The company has got a splendid location on the coast of the Gulf of Finland and it has its own port. There are large quantities of high quality limestone found in the vicinity of the plant and local oil-shale has been used as fuel for the kilns for many decades.
Today Kunda Nordic is a modern Estonian company offering constructional cements, crushed limestone and port services to customers from both Estonia and abroad. 

Kiviõli Keemiatööstus

About company |

About company

Kiviõli Oil Shale Processing & Chemicals Plant 

Deposit occurrence, oil shale mining and processing 

The Baltic Oil Shale basin is located in the northwestern border of the East European Platform, continuousing from northeastern Estonia to northwestern Russia.

The area of the Baltic oil shale basin is approximatelyy 50,000 km2. The Estonian oil shale (kukersite from the locality name) is geologically related to Middle Ordovician. The richer kukersite layers are located in the lower part of Kiviõli Member of the Kukruse Stage.

The deposit locating in north-east Estonia is approximately 3000 km2, and the oil shale comprises there up to fifty laterally continuous kukersite seams having thickness from several cm to 0,9 m.

The oil shale in Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse OÜ is mined in open casts. The modern surface miner Wirtgen 2500 SM - the first one in Estonia – is used in the mine. Enterprise has an ability to mine one million tons of oil shale per year.

Chemical and mineralogical composition oil shale 

The main components of oil shale are the organic matter (content ranges from 10 up to 60%), carbonate minerals (20 – 70%) and clastic minerals (15 – 60%).

The kerogen in the Estonian Ordovician kukersite has a marine origin.

Kiviõli Oil Shale Processing & Chemicals Plant 

The Kiviõli Oil Shale Processing Plant, founded in 1922, represents one of the oldest enterprises in Estonia, engaged in producing oil shale products and speciality chemicals.

Nowadays the production activity of the Kiviõli Oil Shale Processing Plant develops in two directions, i.e. oil shale retorting to produce shale oil and to produce oil shale – based chemicals, whereas shale oil is notable for relatively low level of paraffinic hydrocarbons, that determine the specific routes of their processing.

The production of our enterprise reaches up to 45,000 tons S-1 shale oil, 7000 tons shale road oil and 10,000 tons road shale bitumens per year. At the same time Kiviõli Keemiatööstuse OÜ produces thermal and electric energy (110 000 MWh and 35 million kWh per year), covering the need for central heating of Kiviõli town.

Eesti Energia Mining

Mining - Eesti Energia:

Eesti Energia Kaevandused (Eesti Energia Mining) mines oil shale to supply the electricity and oil industries with fuel and raw materials. We also process the enrichment waste from oil shale, sending it as a raw material to the construction materials industry and as gravel for road construction.
The company has four mines, two underground and two opencast, and a rail transport unit.
In the financial year 2008/09, the company produced over 15 million tonnes of oil shale. Most of the company's production is sold to the power plants and oil plants within the Eesti Energia Group. During the financial year 2008/09, the company invested 362 million kroons in improving the production processes. This included completing the new crushed stone plant in the Estonia mine at a cost of over 100 million kroons.
Eesti Energia Mining)maintains the traditions of oil shale mining and is a leading researcher in the field. June 2006 was the 90th anniversary of the start of industrial oil shale mining in Estonia. In order to ensure the raw material for energy production in the future, we have started preparations for a new mine, the Uus-Kiviõli mine.
Read more about the progress of this project »
The oil shale resources of Estonia belong to the state and are located in the strategically important Estonian deposit. The state issues a licence for oil shale mining to each mine or quarry, assigning a part of the deposit and giving each mine a mining claim. The size of the mining area can be around a hundred square kilometres and the mining claim can cover several hundred million tonnes of oil shale. An opencast pit also requires a full land grant, while an underground mine needs land grants only for the land used for mining-related infrastructure. The procedure and conditions for mining are prescribed in the mining permit and in several laws regulating environmental protection and occupational health and safety.

Fact sheet - Oil Shale | Resources | Oresome Resources - Minerals and Energy Education

Fact sheet - Oil Shale | Resources | Oresome Resources - Minerals and Energy Education:

Oil Shale fact sheet

Year Level(s)Years 3-6, Years 7-10, Years 11-12
Subject Area(s)Engineering Technology, Geography, By Subject, Earth & Environmental Science, Science, SOSE
Topic(s)Opencut Mining, Non-Renewable Energy, Energy, Geology / Mineral Formation, Mining, Liquid Fuels, Technology
Resource TypeFact Sheet

Discover what oil shale is and where oil shale resources can be found in Australia. Learn about oil shale’s potential as an alternative fuel for Australia, given our decreasing supply of crude oil resources. Discover how oil shale was formed and learn about the process of mining oil shale.
Educational Value Statement
Explains the size and location of Australia’s oil shale resourcesDescribes the formation of oil shaleExplains how oil shale is mined and what oil shale products can be used forExplains the potential of Australia’s oil shale as a form of fuel.
Key Learning Objectives
Students describe Australia’s increasing need for fuel.Students understand what oil shale is and how it was formed over time.Students learn about the location and quantity of Australia’s oil shale resources.Students describe how oil shale is mined and how it might contribute to Australia’s fuel mix.Students learn about an oil shale demonstration plant in Queensland.
Australian Curriculum Content Statements
Science: ACSSU032, ACSSU116, ACSHE121, ACSSU153, ACSHE226, ACSHE136

Fact sheet - An overview of oil shale

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Media TypePDF
File Size0.48MB

Fact sheet - An overview of oil shale (Word)

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File Size1.53MB

oil shale - National Geographic Education

oil shale - National Geographic Education:

Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Kerogen is a part of rock that breaks down and releases hydrocarbons when heated. Hydrocarbons are substances made entirely of hydrogen and carbon.Petroleum and natural gas are probably the most familiar hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons in oil shale can be used as an alternative to petroleum or natural gas.
Like traditional petroleum, natural gas, and coal, oil shale and kerogen are fossil fuels. Fossil fuels developed from the remains of algae, spores, plants, pollen, and a variety of other organisms that lived millions of years ago in ancient lakes, seas, and wetlands. 
When these organisms died and drifted to the seabed, they were buried under new layers of plants and sediment. They encountered intense pressure and heat, decomposed, and slowly transformed into the waxy substance known as kerogen. 
There is not a consistent chemical composition of kerogen, because it has a variety of origins. Kerogen that formed from land plants (called humic kerogen) usually has a higher oxygen content than kerogen formed from plankton (calledplanktonic kerogen). However, all types of kerogen consist mainly of hydrocarbons; smaller amounts of sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen; and a variety of minerals.
Oil shale can be thought of as a precursor to oil and natural gas. With more pressure and over more geological time, kerogen would heat to its “oil window” or “gas window” (the temperature at which it would release crude oil or natural gas).
A sedimentary rock, oil shale is found all over the world, including China, Israel, and Russia. The United States, however, has the most shale resources.
Spanning the U.S. states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, the Green River formation is an underground oil shale formation that contains as much as 1.8 trillion barrels of shale oil. Although not all of this can be extracted, it is more than three times the proven petroleum reserves of Saudi Arabia. 
Oil Shale, Shale Oil, and Oil-Bearing Shale
Oil shale, shale oil, and oil-bearing shale are three different substances. Oil shale is a sedimentary rock. As it reaches its oil window, oil shale releases a liquid known as shale oil. Oil shale is the rock from which shale oil is extracted.
Shale oil is similar to petroleum, and can be refined into many different substances, including diesel fuel, gasoline, and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Companies can also refine shale oil to produce other commercial products, such as ammonia and sulfur. The spent rock can be used in cement. 
Oil-bearing shales are underground rock formations that contain trapped petroleum. The petroleum trapped within the rocks is known as “tight oil” and is difficult to extract. Companies extracting tight oil often use hydraulic fracturing (fracking), while companies extracting shale oil most often use heat.
The Bakken formation, for example, is made of oil-bearing shale. It is a series of layered shale rocks with a petroleum reservoir trapped between the layers. The Bakken formation stretches from the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, through the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Improved drilling technologies have allowed companies to extract oil from the Bakken formation, creating an economic boom in the region. 

Ingo Valgma - Google Scholar Citations

Ingo Valgma - Google Scholar Citations:

Citation indices
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Citations to my articles
Citations to my articles
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 Title / AuthorCited by Year
An analysis of vegetation restoration on opencast oil shale mines in Estonia
M Pensa, A Sellin, A Luud, I Valgma
Restoration Ecology 12 (2), 200-206
Estonian oil shale resources calculated by GIS method
I Valgma
Oil Shale 20 (3; SUPP), 404-411
Usage of Estonian oil shale
E Väli, I Valgma, E Reinsalu
Oil Shale 25 (2S), 101-114
Geographical Information System for Oil Shale Mining-MGIS
I Valgma, T Tehnikaülikool
Tallinn Technical University Press
Oil shale resources for oil production
E Reinsalu, I Valgma
Oil Shale 24 (1), 9
Technogenic water in closed oil shale mines
E Reinsalu, I Valgma, H Lind, K Sokman
Oil Shale 23 (1), 15-28
Precision of oil shale energy rating and oil shale resources
K Koitmets, E Reinsalu, I Valgma
Oil Shale 20 (1), 15-24
Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines
E Reinsalu, I Valgma
Oil Shale 20 (3; SUPP), 398-403
Post-stripping processes and the landscape of mined areas in Estonian oil shale open casts
I Valgma
Oil Shale 17 (2), 201-212
Kaevandatud maa
E Reinsalu, A Toomik, I Valgma
Tallinna Tehnikaülikool
Quality control of oil shale production in Estonian mines
I Valgma, E Reinsalu, S Sabanov, V Karu
Oil Shale 27 (3), 239-249
Developing computational groundwater monitoring and management system for Estonian oil shale deposit
H Lind, K Robam, I Valgma, K Sokman
Geoenvironment & Geotechnics (GEOENV08)/Agioutantis, Z., Komnitsas, K.(eds ...
Oil Shale Mining Development in Estonia
I Valgma, O Nikitin, M Lohk
Proc. Taiex Workshop on EU Legislation as it Affects Mining.–Tallinn: TUT ...
Application of modelling tools in Estonian oil shale mining area
V Karu, A Västrik, I Valgma
Oil Shale 25 (2), 135-144
Mined-Out Land
E Reinsalu, A Toomik, I Valgma
Tallinn: Mining Institute of Tallinn University of Technology
Map of oil shale mining history in Estonia
I Valgma
Proc. II. 5th Mining History Congress, Greece, Milos Conference Center ...
Oil Shale mining-related research in Estonia
I Valgma
Oil Shale 26 (4), 445-450
Future of oil shale mining technology in Estonia
V Karu, A Västrik, A Anepaio, V Väizene, A Adamson, I Valgma
Oil Shale 25 (2), 125-134
Oil Shale Mining Developments in Estonia as the bases for sustainable power industry
I Valgma, V Karu, A Viil, M Lohk
Proc. of Doctoral School of Power Engineering and Geotechnology. Tallinn ...
Mapping potential areas of ground subsidence in Estonian underground oil shale mining district
I Valgma
2. International Conference: Environment. Technology. Resources, Rezekne ...
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